Genetic modification of plants involves adding a specific stretch of DNA into the plant’s genome, giving it new or different characteristics. Biotechnology, through genetic engineering, has the potential to contribute to increased agricultural production by making crops better able to cope with both biotic and abiotic stress. Bacterial genetic variations take place through this method. The new DNA becomes part of the GM plant’s genome which the seeds produced by these plants will contain. Gene transfer using bacterial infection- This method is one of the popular methods and routinely used in plant genetic engineering experiments. Application in Agriculture: An important application of recombinant DNA technology is to alter the genotype of crop plants to make them more productive, nutritious, rich in proteins, disease resistant, and less fertilizer consuming. Plasmid method occurs in the following way: 1) A plasmid which is a small piece of DNA molecule is … Plant genomes can be engineered by physical methods or by use of Agrobacterium for the delivery of sequences hosted in T-DNA binary vectors.In most cases, the aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. Conventional plant genetic engineering methods (Agrobacterium‐mediated transformation or gene‐gun transformation) mainly deliver DNA into the nucleus, where it integrates into the genome, leading to the migration of genes out of transgenic plants and resulting in enhanced herbicide resistance in weeds. Here, the plant species is infected with the transformed bacteria for inserting a gene of interest. Crops developed by genetic engineering can not only be used to enhance yields and nutritional quality but also for increased tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. 2012). In the food industry, genetic modifications (GM) are defined as a group of methods that change the genetic composition of a plant or animal to improve its nutritional content, shelf life, flavor, color, texture, agronomic properties, or processing characteristics. Genetically modified crops (GM crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods. Genetic Engineering: Application # 1. Agrobacterium tumifecian is utilized to insert recombinant DNA into the plant cell. Genetically-modified (GM) crops can prove to be powerful complements to those produced by conventional methods for meeting the worldwide demand for quality foods. In plant biotechnology, over expression of heterologous genes by transgenic methods is widely used to improve industrially important crop plants (Tanaka et al. Methods of Genetic Engineering:-There are three main methods through which genetic engineering techniques work: The Plasmid Method:-Plasmid method is the most commonly used method of altering the genes of any microorganism. This could include changing the way the plant grows, or making it resistant to a particular disease. when the trait to be introduced is not present in the germplasm of the crop; the trait is very difficult to improve by conventional breeding methods; and when it will take a very long time to introduce and/or improve such trait in the crop by conventional breeding methods (see Figure 2). Genetic engineering techniques are used only when all other techniques have been exhausted, i.e.

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